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Bones and Minerals
  • Calcium: Major component of bones. Important in functions of the muscles, the brain and the nervous system, and blood clotting. Calcium is released from bones or stored in bones based on the calcium level in the blood.
  • High Calcium levels could mean: Hyperparathyroidism, bone, lung & breast cancer, bone resorption.
  • Low Calcium levels could mean: Low intake/absorption, vitamin D deficiency
  • Ferritin: In the body, iron is incorporated into heme proteins (including hemoglobin), transported via transferrin, or stored in ferritin and hemosiderin. Serum ferritin reflects the total amount of stored iron, being directly proportional to that stored in the tissues and the circulation. Useful in the diagnosis of hypochromic, microcytic anemias.
  • High Ferritin levels could mean: hemochromatosis, hematologic disorders, acute liver disease, leukemia, lymphoma, hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Low Ferritin levels could mean: Iron deficiency
  • Iron: The body must have iron to make hemoglobin, the primary protein of red blood cells. A large amount of iron is found in red blood cells and muscle cells. Iron helps convert oxygen and other nutrients to energy that fuels the cells activity.
  • High Iron levels could mean: Hemochromatosis, hemolytic anemia, acute liver disease
  • Low Iron levels could mean: iron deficiency anemia
  • Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC): The assay for iron measures the amount of iron which is bound to transferring. The total iron binding capacity (TIBC) measures the amount of iron that would appear in blood if all the transferring were saturated with iron. It is an indirect measurement of transferring concentrations but expressed as an iron measurement. To obtain the percent saturation, the serum iron is divided by the TIBC which gives the actual amount of saturated transferring. The percent saturation is low in iron deficiency and high in iron storage disease.
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